Take a look
129Xe-MRI to Differentiate Fibrosis and Inflammation
Hyperpolarised 129-xenon MRI in differentiating between fibrotic and inflammatory interstitial lung disease and assessing longitudinal change
by Irma Mahmutovic Persson, Nina Fransén Pettersson, Jian Liu, Hanna Falk Håkansson, Anders Örbom, René JA Eaden, GJ Collier, G Norquay, H-F Chan, PJC Hughes, ND Weatherley, S Rajaram, A Swift, CT Leonard, S Skeoch, N Chaudhuri, GJM Parker, SM Bianchi, JM Wild
Thorax 2021;76:A46-A47. doi: 10.1136/thorax-2020-BTSabstracts.80
Introduction and Objectives: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and mean diffusive length scale (LmD) are diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI measurements of alveolar gas diffusion, providing novel lung microstructure information. Hyperpolarised 129-xenon (129Xe) MR spectroscopy is a quantitative marker of gas exchange, using the ratio of uptake of 129Xe in red blood cells to tissue/plasma (RBC:TP).
The objective was to evaluate hyperpolarised 129Xe MRI in differentiating between fibrotic and inflammatory ILD and assessing longitudinal change.
Methods: A prospective, multicentre study of ILD patients including connective tissue disease ILD (CTD-ILD), drug induced ILD (DI-ILD), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (iNSIP) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Hyperpolarised 129Xe MRI was performed on a 1.5T scanner. Baseline HRCT scan was performed within a year prior to the MRI scan. Semi-quantitative visual CT analysis was performed by two consultant chest radiologists. In the non-IPF subtypes, a ground glass opacity score <2 and ≥2 was used to define fibrotic and inflammatory ILD respectively. All IPF subjects were classified as fibrotic.
Results: To date, 34 patients (5 CTD-ILD, 9 DI-ILD, 7 HP, 2 iNSIP, 11 IPF) have complete MRI scan data for two separate visits (6 weeks apart for DI-ILD/HP/iNSIP and 6 months apart for CTD-ILD/IPF). There were 18 patients in the fibrotic group and 16 in the inflammatory group. At baseline visit there was no significant difference in mean RBC:TP between the fibrotic and inflammatory groups (0.17 vs 0.14; p=0.083), but a significant difference between the fibrotic and inflammatory groups in mean ADC (0.048 vs 0.043; p=0.030) (figure 1a) and mean LmD(261.3 vs 243.4; p=0.017) (figure 1b). In longitudinal change, there was a significant difference in mean RBC:TP between the fibrotic and inflammatory groups (-0.026 vs 0.0016; p=0.023), but no significant difference between the fibrotic and inflammatory groups in mean ADC (0.00089 vs -0.00025; p=0.25) and mean LmD (2.1 vs -0.19; p=0.39).
Conclusions: 129Xe DW-MRI could have a role in differentiating changes in the airway microstructure between fibrotic and inflammatory ILD. 129Xe RBC:TP has sensitivity to longitudinal change with a decline in gas exchange observed in the fibrotic group but not in the inflammatory group.