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DIILD Review

Drug-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease: A Systematic Review

Sarah Skeoch, Nicholas Weatherley , Andrew J. Swift, Alexander Oldroyd, Christopher Johns, Conal Hayton, Alessandro Giollo, James M. Wild, John C. Waterton, Maya Buch, Kim Linton, Ian N. Bruce, Colm Leonard, Stephen Bianchi and Nazia Chaudhuri

J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(10), 356 doi: 10.3390/jcm7100356.



Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DIILD) occurs as a result of numerous agents, but the risk often only becomes apparent after the marketing authorisation of such agents. Methods: In this PRISMA-compliant systematic review, we aimed to evaluate and synthesise the current literature on DIILD. Results: Following a quality assessment, 156 full-text papers describing more than 6000 DIILD cases were included in the review. However, the majority of the papers were of low or very low quality in relation to the review question (78%). Thus, it was not possible to perform a meta-analysis, and descriptive review was undertaken instead. DIILD incidence rates varied between 4.1 and 12.4 cases/million/year. DIILD accounted for 3–5% of prevalent ILD cases. Cancer drugs, followed by rheumatology drugs, amiodarone and antibiotics, were the most common causes of DIILD. The radiopathological phenotype of DIILD varied between and within agents, and no typical radiological pattern specific to DIILD was identified. Mortality rates of over 50% were reported in some studies. Severity at presentation was the most reliable predictor of mortality. Glucocorticoids (GCs) were commonly used to treat DIILD, but no prospective studies examined their effect on outcome. Conclusions: Overall high-quality evidence in DIILD is lacking, and the current review will inform larger prospective studies to investigate the diagnosis and management of DIILD.